Saturday, May 23, 2020
Gary Leon Ridgway was born in Salt Lake City, Utah and after a string of killings that extended roughly 20 years he was dubbed, by local police, as the Green River Killer. He had admitted to killing over 90 prostitutes and had Ã¢â¬Å"lost count because it was so manyÃ¢â¬ . Despite his IQ of 82, he had this serial killing down to a science and evaded police for quite sometime before a DNA test eventually convicted him of a murder and tied him to the whole string of murders that he had committed over the past decade. One has to ask themselves, Ã¢â¬Å"What makes a person such a monster?Ã¢â¬ , in this paper I will attempt to explain what may or may not have contributed to these horrific murders. However it is important to keep in mind that these are theories andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Seems like an odd time to find god to me. Enuresis is defined as frequent bed wetting well past the age of 5 years old. As stated above clearly Ridgway suffered from this aliment, also it was reported that because of his mothers annoyance with the behavior she tormented him. Due to this fact, he clearly harbored resentment of his mother. He also reported to have some amount of sexual attraction to his mother, which is a clear indicator of much deeper seeded emotional problems. I also believe due to lack of apparent intelligence Ridgway from early in his life suffered being looked down upon because of his apparent lack of intellect. The Labeling Theory applies in this case, when Ridgeway was 16 years of age he stabbed a 6 year old and left him for dead. Deep seeded emotional problems contributed to the anger Ridgeway felt toward his victims, although later in his years his targeted victim group were prostitutes alone. Last but not least, clearly Ridgway is defined as a psychopath; he cared little for the well being of others, least of all the prostitute victims. Granted it is a norm in society for people to look down upon prostitutes, however not to the degree of their lives being equated to nothing as Ridgway would believe. Also I find it odd that a man that would frequent prostitutes and sink to the level of engaging them for their services, would take such a hostile stance to them as people, enough to drive him to kill. I believe Ridgway selectedShow MoreRelatedGary Leon Ridgeway: the Green River Killer2656 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesCRMJ329: Criminal Profiling Gary Leon Ridgway By: Donna Jamison Born in Salt Lake City Utah in the year 1949, Gary Leon Ridgway was the middle child of three sons. Ridgway was raised in a chaotic and underprivileged household with a domineering mother and a father who reportedly despised prostitutes (Prothero, 2006). Ridgway wet the bed until his late teens. His mother reportedly bathed him until he was well into his teenage years, paying special attention to his genitals (Prothero, and SmithRead MoreThe Green River Killer : Avoidable Or Inescapable?902 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Green River Killer: Avoidable or Inescapable? Gary Leon Ridgway, better known to the general public as The Green River Killer, was a prolific serial killer whose chosen hunting grounds were Washington State during the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. RidgwayÃ¢â¬â¢s victims of choice were prostitutes and underage runaways, which he strangled and whose bodiesÃ¢â¬â¢ he dumped in wooded areas along the Green River, inciting the pseudonym the Green River Killer. Reportedly, he often returned to the dumbed bodiesRead MoreGary Ridgeway1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Æ' Male Serial Killers: Gary Ridgeway In the summer of 1982, one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s worst and deadliest serial killers would start a killing spree that would last for almost 2 decades. This killer was known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Green River Killer,Ã¢â¬ but his real name was Gary Leon Ridgway. Ridgeway would murder numerous women in and around the Seattle, Washington area during the 1980s and the 1990s. When he was captured in 2001, Ridgway had admitted to killing 48 plus women. (Rule, 2004) Though, it is still believedRead MoreThe Green River Killer Essay959 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesjustice to a lot of familyÃ¢â¬â¢s mourning for their sisters, mothers, and daughters. His story is intriguing and is one that I would like to tell. The green river killer was not always known by this title, before his capture in 2001 he was known as Gary Leon Ridgway. He was born in February 18 1949 in Salt Lake City, Utah. (Bio 2013) When he turned 11 years old his family moved to Washington, he was the middle of three boys and was brought up in a relatively poor household not too far from the stateRead MoreJohn Wayne Gacy And Charles Manson Essay797 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, Jeffrey Dahmer, Gary Leon Ridgeway and Charles Manson. These are some of the most infamous names in the history of murder, but they hid in plain sight, and Manson did not even commit murder. He was so manipulative he could convince others to do his bidding for him. How is that even possible? Surely one would be able to recognize someone who is such a dangerous threat or would they? One of the reasons these killers can be so successful is their ability to blend into
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1901 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? In fast changing business environment many business managers often seek to have a more generalist knowledge of business and business principles. The aim of this module is to introduce business skills to learners, in order to help them to establish solid business foundations and understand the various leadership styles they may acquire to ensure a cooperative structure within their companies or enterprises. For me, as a Software development student, I was not interested at all by this module because I found it useless for my career. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Generalist Knowledge Of Business And Business Principles Business Essay" essay for you Create order But now, after more than 6 courses in business skills, I discover finally that is a very informative course, which has a positive impact on my real life, because of the fact that deal with a sample subjects which we use daily, such as time, communication, leadership,..etc. Then I changed totally my ideas, and I enjoy the course, thats why Im writing this reflective essay about this module. Chapter A:Learning skills Section 1:Communication Communication is the process of expression, transmission and interpretation of knowledge and ideas from a sender to a receiver by several ways. Communication has divers characteristics as speaking effectively, which allow a good transmission of the message orally and avoid the poorly understood. Writing is one of the most used ways of communication. Writing is more formal than speaking.For instance, we write to apply for an employment, training, to complain, As I mentioned before, to achieve communication process,we need tra nsmitter and receptor, then the receptor must be a good listener to get the correct idea, in order to be able to express similar or different ideas , when he switch the role and become a transmitter. In this way, that person who has the capacity expressing and transmitting an ideas can surely lead or/and manage a group discussion easily. In spite of all, I want to mention that the most effective way of communication is the non-verbal one. Because of the fact that it request the minimum effort to transmit a huge quantity and quality of information, but the only disadvantage is that it can be done just face to face which is not possible all the time. If we apply all those technics in business life it might radically change. Most people in business spend a lot of time communicating in writing. While the inter-office memo and the fax are old hat, you will spend a good few hours a day fighting your inbox. Add to this reports, white papers, proposals and resumes, its certain y ou will need to sharpen your word power to succeed. Business person use frequently social networking to communicate between each other due to the fact that we are not all social gadflies, some of us struggle to make small talk. It is a key skill to learn though, it is true what they say, sometimes it is more who you know than what. To conclude this section ,I learned from this course how to communicate positively with people, and use all my abilities on that, either verbal or non-verbal performances. Which give an extra self confidence and a courage to speak in public without stress thanx to team work activities which allowed me to get used to work on group and talk and make people interacting with me. Section 2: Research and planing ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Research: In the broadest sense of the word, the definition of research includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Pla nning: The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals. So, if these two technics are combined , the result will be the following definition as I learned in class. Research planning means : the search for specific knowledge and the ability to conceptualize future needs and solutions for meeting those needs. Which requires plenty of abilities , as: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Forecasting, predicting ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Creating ideas ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Identifying problems ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Imagining alternatives ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Identifying resources ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Gathering information ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Solving problems ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Setting goals ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Extracting important information ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Defining needs Ã Æ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Analyzing ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Developing evaluation strategies SECTION 3 : Interpersonal skills About this subject I learned a lot, from the business skills course, especially by practice (team work, deferent activities in or out of class ). Then, from what I learned in class and my practice in my field of work. I have summarized all major features in 7 points: Being a great person skills, its simply a matter of knowing the basics of how to deal with other people, and then making a conscious effort to put those basics into practice. Here are seven habits of people whom others view as having great interpersonal skills. 1. They present their best selves to the public: Your moods change, but your customer external or internal doesnt care. Make a conscious effort to be your most positive, enthusiastic, helpful self, especially when thats not how you feel. If you need to vent, do it in private. 2. They answer phone calls promptly: Few things annoy people more than not having their phone calls returned. Get back to people within 2 hours. If you cant, have your voice mail guide them to others who can help in your 8place. If youre really uncomfortable with someone and dont want to talk with them on the phone, answer their query through a fax or eÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ mail. Or, call when you know they wont be there and leave the information on their voice mail. 3. They call people by their names and ask questions about their lives. Take the time to learn and use everyones name, especially secretaries. Most people dont. You dont have to gladÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ hand, but if you see a childs picture on someones desk, theyd probably appreciate your asking, How old is your daughter? Establishing some common bond makes the other person more receptive to working with you. 1. They meet people halfway: Sometimes were right and the other person is wrong, but many techies I observe seem to enjoy going out of their way to rub it in the other persons face. Implement the correct technical solution without making the other person feel stupid or ignorant, e.g., Thats a good idea, but given the process variables, heres another approach that would avoid contamination problems downstream. 1. They listen carefully before speaking: A sure sign you are not listening to the other person is that you cant wait to say what you want to say, and as soon as the other person pauses, you jump in and start talking. Even if you think you know the answer, listen to the other person. Their knowledge and grasp of the situation may surprise you. If not, listening shows you considered their opinion and didnt just steamroll over them. 1. They keep eye contact: When youre talking with someone, look them in the eye at points in the conversation. If youre explaining something while typing on a keyboard, take your eyes away from the screen now and then to look and talk directly at the other person. After all, its a PC, not a car; you wont crash if you take your eyes off the road. 1. They are not afraid to admit when they are wrong: Techies are afraid that non techies will think they are incompetent if they admit to being wrong. The opposite is true. Andrew Lanyi, a stock market expert, explains, The more you are willing to admit that you are not a guru, the more credibility you gain. No one knows everything, and everybody knows people make mistakes. If you refuse to admit mistakes or pretend to know everything, people wont trust you when you are right and do know the answer. SECTION 4: Managerial skills By practicing group activities I learned that if I would like to be a good manager or leader in the future. I will necessarily add to all my performances the human touch which enhance the productivity. The most valuable qualities that the manager will develop within himself are patience kindness,and consideration for other people. By the way, a good manager will also develop six major skills in working to create a quality effective team: 1. Observation 2. Monitor Employee Performance 3. Implementation of Professional Development Programs 4. Demonstrates Working Knowledge and Expertise 5. Good Decision Making 6. Ability to Conduct and Evaluate Research Although machines and chemicals dont care whether you scream and curse at them, people do. Your subordinates are not just engineers, scientists, administrators, clerks, and programmers they are people, first and foremost. People with families and friends, likes and dislikes. People with feelings. Respect them as people and youll get their respect and loyalty in return. But treat them coldly and impersonally and they will lose motivation to perform for you. Personally I believe in one Golden rule Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. I get also the principle that the leader must be open to new ideas even small and sample ones. Chapter B:Time management Section 5: Strategies The real goal is to help yourself become aware of how we use your time as one resource in organizing, prioritizing, and succeeding in your studies in the context of competing activities of friends, work, family, etc. The strategies I learned are: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Blocks of study time and breaks ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Dedicated study spaces ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Weekly reviews ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Prioritize your assignments ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Achieve stage oneget something done! ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Postpone unnecessary activities until the work is done! ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Identify resources to help youÃâ ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Use your free time wisely ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Review notes and readings just before class ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Review lecture notes just after class Review your ten applications above. Daily/weekly planner Long term planner Chapter C: Creativity Skills Section 6:Imagination Thanx to the business skills course I understood that neglecting the creative side feeling that it is better to be all about the logic, isnt true because that some of the most successful business people are also the most imaginative. Because of the fact that by imagination we become creative and we generate new ideas, and by this way we can develop our self, family and work. Section 7:Brainstorming Brainstorming is one of the most useful technics to solve problems. There are two kinds of brainstorming: Group brainstorming: is a group discussion of special problem well defined in order to find out a solution by generating a very large number of ideas. Individual brainstorming: is the process of writing down the large number of ideas by your own, to give a solution to a specific problem. Section 8:Descriptive Statistics Every Tuesday we were accustomed to take a course about descriptive statistics. In my point of view I found that class very interested, but not in my case because I had the same course last year, knowing that I studied one year on preparatory classes,thats why that I found it repetitive. By and large, descriptive statistics is very subservient in our daily life. Personally it helps me to take the best decision many time, and Im sure that Im going to use probability more that now in my professional domain. The course is composite of : ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Central tendency 1. Average:An average is a single value that is meant to typify a list of values 2. Mean:the sum of the values divided by the number of values 3. Mode:is the value that occurs most frequently in a data set . 4. Median:is describ ed as the numeric value separating the higher half of a sample 5. Range:is a the deference between the highest and the lowest value in the set. 6. Interange: 7. Variance: ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ VARc ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ VARu ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¢ Standard deviation: 1. Coefficient of correlation: Conclusion :
Monday, May 11, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Cheesman and Merikle (1984) introduced the concepts of objective and subjective thresholds, suggesting that subliminal stimuli are the messages that are only able to reach the objective threshold, while the messages that pass through both objective and subjective thresholds would be perceived consciously by the subjects. This idea was challenged by Holender (1986), who argued that subjects may have perceived the quickly flashed images or words that are designed to be subliminal stimuli consciously but failed to recall them at the time of report, thus Ã¢â¬Å"effectively riles the phenomenon of subliminal perception out of existenceÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless, HolenderÃ¢â¬â¢s argument were countered by many others in the field, who pointed out that he ignored the aspect of awareness that essentially forms our consciousness, in which consciousness is a Ã¢â¬Å"primary phenomenon, which the experimenter has no right to argue withÃ¢â¬ (Norretranders, 1998). It is important to note that no fixed subjective threshold has been located or identified and existing evidence suggested that it varies from individual. Thus, based on the above arguments, subliminal stimuli would be defined as the stimuli that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t reach conscious awareness even if attention is paid to them, only reaching the objective threshold. The existence of subliminal perception reveals the enormous processing capacity of the unconscious is enormous Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦if we accept that unconscious perceptual processes have a paramount influence on humanShow MoreRelatedEssay on Figure Ground3979 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagessubliminal perception of the prime may also affect the subsequent perception in one way or another. Subliminal priming might be influential enough to affect the subsequent perceptual processes, thus, account for a kind of past experience. Cheesman and Merikle (1984) dealt with the issue of perception without awareness using the Stroop procedure. They found no evidence for the perception of materials presented below threshold. On the other hand, Epstein and Rock (1960) tested the effect of expectancy
The point of the abstracts is to show how different societies can be affected by the same economic factor Ã¢â¬â rising oil prices. Countries, that I am going to present in the light of this question can be divided on two categories: oil-importers and oil-exporters. The following abstracts will be guided by this division. We will write a custom essay sample on Rapid Rise of Oil Prices or any similar topic only for you Order Now Oil-exporters Many of these countries have their economies based mainly on oil export, which makes them highly dependent on their resources on one hand, and give certain political buttons on the other. Most of these countries form OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries). One of them is Iran: Ã¢â¬Å"Revenues from oil and gas exports provide up to 70% of the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s general budget. Both the government and economy of Iran are highly dependant on oil. Foreign goods are mainly paid by petrodollars, enriching many Iranians and making many individuals quite wealthy. The boost in oil revenues that came with the 1973 oil price boom led to the creation of many new enterprises.Ã¢â¬ (Karbassian Akbar (2000) Islamic Revolution and the Management of the Iranian Economy. Social Research. V.67; i.2; p621.) Ã¢â¬Å"By this spring the price per barrel had nearly tripledÃ¢â¬ ¦OPEC production ran slightly behind world purchasing.Ã¢â¬ (Gregg Easterbrook (05/15/2000) Opportunity cost Ã¢â¬â Hooray For Expensive Oil; The new Republic. P.21) From this we can assume that triggering oil prices to go up simply by slowing down the production can be very profitable. Ã¢â¬Å"We have an income distribution from oil importing countries towards the oil exporting countries.Ã¢â¬ (Breffni OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke. EU: High Oil Prices Affect Economies, Societies. http:/ rferl.org/ nca/ features/ 2000/ 09/ F.RU.000911133329.html). This way many macro economical problems (budget holes, financing of social needs et c) could be happily solved. But in real life these profits appear ambiguously. If we take a close look at countries like Iran in the period of time we donÃ¢â¬â¢t find fast economic growth like in most European oil importing countries. That is because these countries sometimes tend to have a petrodollar injection rather than seek for more natural ways of improving their economies. Ã¢â¬Å"The high oil prices and the cheap rouble which killed the competition of foreign goods provided the push for a modest recovery.Ã¢â¬ (Dimitry Shlapentokh. (05/00) PutinÃ¢â¬â¢s Russia: What Is Ahead? Contemporary Review. V.276 i.612 p.225) Thus the conclusion is that rising oil prices are beneficial for oil-exporting countries only in a short-term matter, because they can provide a necessary boost for their economies. But used as a recovery tool petrodollars could be dangerously addictive stunting natural progress of the economy. Oil-importers Oil-importing countries are dependant on oil as well, only in a different from oil-exporters way. Ã¢â¬Å"Higher prices are making a strong impact across Europe, provoking protests in some areas and threatening to reverse the continentÃ¢â¬â¢s economic recovery.Ã¢â¬ (Breffni OÃ¢â¬â¢Rourke. EU: High Oil Prices Affect Economies, Societies. http:/ rferl.org/ nca/ features/ 2000/ 09/ F.RU.000911133329.html). Ã¢â¬Å"For the typical oil-importing country, the temporary income loss due to a rise in oil prices leads to a decrease in saving rather than a downward adjustment of consumption.Ã¢â¬ (N.Loayza; K. Schmidt-Hebbel; L. Serven. 05/00. What Drives Private Savings Across the World? Review Of Economics And Statistics. V.82 i.2 p.165). Of course high oil prices usually cause certain damage. Depending on whole economic and politic situation damage can be serious or mild: Ã¢â¬Å"High oil prices are causing hardship for many Americans Ã¢â¬â Americans on modest incomes that have to drive a long way to work, independent truckers that have big fuel costs.Ã¢â¬ (The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Radio Address. (05/27/00) Weekly Compilation Of Presidential Documents. V.36 i.12 p.581), 1comparing to Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬Å"fuel riotsÃ¢â¬ were sparked off by a sudden increase in the basic price of oil. People can not afford the increased oil prices because having lost their jobs because of the government actions in the state sector.Ã¢â¬ (African News Service. (07/19/00) p.1008201 n.0410) But besides short-term negative effect (Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦this is the impact which counts most at the moment.Ã¢â¬ Ã Rising oil prices sometimes lead to some positive changes in the society. Situations like that push governments to spend more funds on researches of alternative or more efficient fuels, which in future would allow to be less dependant on oil: Ã¢â¬Å"Meanwhile, we will continue to work toward a longer term solution. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve asked Secretary Richardson to conduct a 60-day study on converting factories and major users from oil to other fuels, which will help to free up future oil supplies for use in heating homes.Ã¢â¬ (The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Radio Address. (05/27/00) Weekly Compilation Of Presidential Documents. V.36 i.12 p.581). How to cite Rapid Rise of Oil Prices, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about theManagerial Ideology for Organizations and Environments. Answer: The implementation of Scientific Management principles resulted in major changes to the Factory System. From a management point of view, what were these changes? Using the article on Morgan's (1997) metaphors (available on Moodle) which of these metaphors applies to Factory system before the implementation of Scientific Management? And which metaphor would apply after? Explain your reasoning concerning the text and other academic sources. First and foremost, it is important to look at the principles of this concept theory of scientific management. The Taylors theory of scientific management has four principles. These include; Replace operation/working by rule of thumb, or simple habit and common sense, and as an alternative apply the scientific method to study work and decide on the most professional and competent manner to perform specific functions. Training of workers Supervise employees performance, and offer instructions and management to make sure that they are the most effective ways of operation. Assign the task to managers and employees so that the managers make use of their time scheduling and training, enabling employees to carry out their duties effectively. Changes; According to these four principles, changes in the factory systems were experienced through their application. The scientific management theory disseminated the idea of division of labour uniformly among the employees as well the managers. This act itself creates a formal and official connection with respect and ensures that the duties given to every employee is worked on promptly. In this case, a teamwork spirit is also cultivated within these institutions. On the other hand, through the division of labour, the management has transformed to a democratic type where every individual is allowed to give out their views in regards to what they feel is affecting their performance. Additionally, another change that has been realized is the chance for scientific training as explained in the principle. Currently, several institutions are putting this principle into practice to realize maximum profits. The introduction of technology in the manufacturing department requires employees and managers to have good knowledge to cope up with the frequent emergence of new technologies, and that requires the application of Taylors concepts. Currently, no organization can deny the fact that they are using Taylors concepts, especially in the recruitment process. A human resource department has been created to carry out the function of recruiting only the best-qualified workers should there be any vacancy within an institution. As the concept demands, the recruits are offered a little training to get to know what is supposed to be done and also familiarise with their place of work. Using the article on Morgan's(1997) metaphors (available on Moodle)which of these metaphors applies to Factory system before the implementation of Scientific Management? And which metaphor would apply after? Explain your reasoning with reference to the text and other academic sources. In the theory of management, there is one model that has stood out among other models; Gareth Morgans metaphors of organizations. Morgan (1997) explains eight metaphors that work as a way through which an individual might view an institution. These metaphors include organism, machine, brain, political system, culture, psych prison, an instrument of domination, change and transformation (Morgan, 2011). Choosing a metaphor to require carefulness since it significantly influences how people see organisational issues and solutions required. Morgans theory stands out mainly since it offers an evaluation of the various viewpoints that apply to comprehend the conduct of institutions. Among these metaphors, there are some that apply to factory system before the implementation of scientific management theory of Taylor. Factory system majorly deals with machines for the better part of the operation. Therefore, a machine as a metaphor was applicable before the implementation of the scientific management theory. Any operating factory requires machines to function better; therefore machine was applied long ago Taylors. The machine requires an organisation to have a command and a time of control. Furthermore, since machines cannot be handled by anybody, it requires an individual with skills to handle it, thus division of labour just the same way as various machines serve different purposes. When an institution or a factory is seen as a machine, an individual has to view how the management, authority and obligation are apportioned and how different persons are authorised to take different plans. Another metaphor applied the theory is the brain metaphor. Several management theories support brain metaphor, and many of them have been developed. One such theory is the decision-making approach that treats institutions as communication, information and decision-making structures. Everything human beings do require the brain; decisions are made using brain; everything that revolves around the management is the brain (Alvesson, 2002). Therefore, this metaphor is critical and is applied after and before the implantation of the concept of Taylors principles. Other metaphors that were before the implementation of Taylors concept include culture and organisation of political parties system. Rational-bureaucratic organisations are supposed to develop the best means to achieve their goals. Based on your reading of Chapter 5 (pg. 56), what would you say are some of the obstacles to making the "best" decisions about ways to reach a goal or solve a problem? Do some organisations have a more difficult time with this than others? What kinds of goals or problems do they deal with? This model is created on the machine metaphor of institutions that illustrates the similarity between the connection among the parts of the mechanical tool and the relationship among positions in the corporations. Max Weber envisioned the theory. It uses a formal hierarchy, speciality, impersonality and promotion based on qualification and achievements, to support an organisation attain their objectives (Martin, 2002). These components help in realising a better and equal workplace, clear directions and which then aids employees with to ask for advice from. There are still obstacles that are being experienced when applying the model in the workplace. It has strict and rigid regulations as well as processes that undermine the organisations primary goals. This takes place as workers are heavily focused on adhering to the rules set by the organisations top management thus making them lose focus on the organisations objectives thus poor in productivity. Do you think the term used by Barnard -- "common moral purpose" (pg. 103) -- is a good way to describe what happens in work organisations? Why or why not? According to Chester Bernard, common purpose may be the best method to describe functions of the organisation. It is suitable for some features as people are often guided by the organisations goals and ways of accomplishing them. Employees work to obtain a common purpose, whether that be making a product or offering a service to customers. Workers job descriptions and functions will relate to the organisations objectives and long-standing goals (CAMBRIDGE POLICY STUDIES INSTITUTE, 1973). Through this, workers will all have a common purpose. Again, the aims of the employees must be coordinated with organisations for a common moral purpose to be realised. Every worker must have the values of the organisation at heart and believe in them thus achieving a common purpose efficiently. The transformation of organisational forms has given rise to a variety of paradoxical demands. For example, organisations want to achieve both economies of scale and economies of scope; they want to specialise yet be flexible. What does each of these separate demands mean for organising and managing? Why they all are desired? How can they peacefully co-exist? Organizations currently, want to accomplish economies of scale and economies of scope, through a means being flexible in spite of having expertise in another ground. According to Turi (2015), economies of scale connected to the rate of offering a better service at a lower cost. Economies of scope are the aggressive benefit that a corporation takes pleasure in for a product or a service for a certain market section. Managerial theorists have used Fords industrial model to replicate on the planning and running abilities of business to portray fresh and up-and-coming organisational forms. New organisations are very different when the comparison is made to the Fordist standards on the division of labour. The organisation should be flexible in economies of scope and also propose product or service that excites to a particular section. In case of economies of scale, business ought to produce products in bulk to authenticate and authenticate costs, thereby planning its existing levels of ma nufacture and running costs. References Morgan, G. (1997). Images of Organization. London: Sage. Martin, J. (2002). Organizational culture: Mapping the terrain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Turi, A,MM,IL,GGAMS 2015, ' May. From Fordism to Lean management: Main shifts in automotive industry evolution within the last century. ', In MakeLearn International Scientific Conference on Management of Knowledge and Learning, pp. 25-27. CAMBRIDGE POLICY STUDIES INSTITUTE. (1973). Working papers for a new society. Cambridge, Mass, Cambridge Policy Studies Institute]. Alvesson, M. (2002). Understanding organizational culture. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall. Martin, J. (2002). Organizational culture: Mapping the terrain. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. JAFFEE, D. (2008). Organization theory: tension and change. Boston, McGraw Hill.
Thursday, April 30, 2020
Table of Contents Abstract Introduction Education and Job Requirements Responsibilities and Motherhood Probable solutions Conclusion Reference List Abstract The socio-economic status of teenage mothers dropping out of high school because of teenage pregnancy has been low and dismal, compared to their counter parts that persevere and go on to finish high school education, acquiring certificates. Various factors have been associated with the reasons why teenage pregnancy negatively affects the lives of individuals prompting them to drop out of institution of learning.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The impact of Education on the Social Economics Status of Teenage Mothers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The teenage mothers who drop out of school are perceived to experience hard economic times because lack of academic qualification results to limited job opportunities. Teenage mothers are not ready to face life and therefore they need special care of which completing education is very essential in laying a firm foundation for their future. Lack of special care and consideration, affects them psychologically and financially, which in turn affect their children consequently affecting the country for generations to come becoming a cyclic perennial problem. Teenage mothers who drop out of school may not make it in life compared to those teenage mothers who continue schooling acquiring a certificate. Lack of proper education negatively affects the socio-economic status of teenage mothers Introduction Teenage motherhood has been an extensively and intensively discussed topic as it has direct effects on the society, having persisted for ages. Many teenagers become pregnant in high school of which about sixty percent do not finish school, many do not finish their schooling mainly due to the financial constraints and peer pressure. Teenage pregnancy and high school dropout by girls is hig hly linked. The pregnancy of teenagers in the modern world has been mainly linked to lack of focus. This is because teenagers with high life aspirations with clearly stated goals tend to shun activities that might jeopardize their career dreams while those teenagers with fewer career aspirations and have only completed few years of school tend to get involved in rather risky choices that eventually create a cycle of adolescent pregnancy. Focus is dependant on other factors like poverty and counsel. Teenage pregnancy, that is from the age of thirteen to nineteen leads to reduced educational accomplishments (Rumberger, 1994). Education and Job Requirements Since only about forty percent of teenage mothers complete school only a single digit of these are able to graduate from the various colleges. The teenage mothers who drop out of high school do not acquire good certificates, which make it difficult for them to acquire promising jobs that can economically sustain them (Gillham, 1997) . The children born of high school dropout live in poverty compared to the teenage mothers who finish high school. The US Department of Education has reported that in the past, high school dropout due to teen pregnancy amounted to more than fifteen percentage of the total school dropout of over a million teenagers. In recent times dropout because of pregnancy has reduced significant to about four percent.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The significant reduction of teenage mothersÃ¢â¬â¢ dropout is being attributed to the major reforms the public schools have taken. The reforms have been institutionalized to accommodate teenage mothers catering to their various needs. Teenage drop out due to pregnancies has been mainly attributed to peer pressure and financial constraints, to cater to these problems, some states have set up schools specifically for pregnant teens and the tee n mothers. This enables these teenagers to complete school in an environment away from ridicule by peers and an environment that caters to their various needs and wants (Musick, 1995). In the modern world job acquisition has become an up hill task due to the country having been hard hit by the aftermath of recession. The rate of unemployment in the country is very high thus the job market has become very competitive and people are hired on merit (Rumberger, 1991). High credentials and high level of education has become a requirement from many employers even on securing a job that is regarded as less formal. Teenage mothers who have no academic certificates that is to say they have low level of education, have found it hard to secure a stable job that can guarantee them and their children a stable source of income. Mothers who have at least graduated from high school have a high chance of securing a job thus uplifting their socio-economic status. In the job market, it does not matter whether you are a mother or not, what matters is the level of qualification, which influences heavily on your output level. Most school dropouts, these have been estimated to be about 1.2 million, are generally faced with tough economic hardships teenage mothers included. This group of high school dropouts account for almost half of the drug abusers due to depression (Harding, 2003). Responsibilities and Motherhood Teenage mothers who have dropped out of high school are still dependants; they are not ready or seasoned enough to face life. Having been used to school life where their parents provide everything, dropping out abruptly due to pregnancy, psychologically traumatizes the young teens. (Remedy Health Media, 2011) They are also supposed to start being responsible taking care of young ones yet they themselves are regarded as minors by the law.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The impact of Education on the Social Economics Status of Teenage Mothe rs specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The harsh reality results in psychic breakdown and mental disorders. Stress is also common among this group of teens, with many turning to drugs while others to prostitution to try meet the various economically demanding roles once a teenage mother drops out, her life path becomes altered. Unless she goes back to school, which becomes harder with advancement with age, she might never be able to acquire a university degree. Without a university degree in the modern 21st century, it becomes a sort of a nightmare. The social class in the modern world is dictated by the level of education, amount of money one has, or the level of influence that an individual has on the society. Economics is directly related to the social class (Gregson, 2009). These mothers are only capable of securing manual work or odd jobs that demand working for long hours if one has to make any substantial income that can sustain t he familyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and pay rent that is soaring each day. The baby back at home has no sufficient time to spend with the mother and thus does not get the required parental care (Biddle, Gorely, Marshall, Murdey Cameron, 2008). Probable solutions The issue of teenage motherhood should be addressed with urgency because it has been one of the pertinent issues that have continued to drag the society into poverty status. The children born in poverty are likely to remain poor even in their adulthood. Survey has shown that women who came from poor families or were brought up in poverty were more likely to become teenage mothers than those who had not encountered poverty or had no history of poverty. It has also been proven that childhood experience of poverty was very closely related with the risk of poverty as an adult. Social economic independence of teenage mothers should thus be fostered with teenage motherhood being discouraged as much as possible. Survey has also shown that te enage mothers have been faced with many challenges and disadvantages than other women. These disadvantages have been attributed to the age at which a woman had her first child rather than parenting itself (Arai, 2009). Women who get children when they have finished their education have a sufficient source of income, while teenage mothers especially school dropouts continue to struggle in life of which, this is likely to be the same case for their children.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In understanding how to counter teenage motherhood several methods have been proposed. Parents and the elderly members of the society should learn to listen to teenagers without passing judgment. Teenagers require safe places to talk freely about the various issues affecting them without being scolded or looked down upon. Teenagers who have trusted individuals they can identify, especially on the school compound, are less likely to engage in risky sexual activities, and if they do, they are more likely to use contraceptives. On the other hand, pregnant or parenting teens should be encouraged to stay in school; especially in the particular school, they were enrolled. This boosts their academic performance at the same time contributing to the health of the baby, as there are reduced stress levels. For example, the state laws in Georgia clearly outline the rights of teenage mother to continue schooling at the school of enrollment. The school curriculum should also be encourage to incor porate courses on sexuality, as those teenagers who learn about health education are less likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors ( Zastrow Kirst Ã¢â¬âAshman, 2007). The school and public health relation should also be promoted, so that there are many school-based and linked health care services provided to teenagers. The various schools and the business community should also join efforts in creating real opportunities for teenagers to have experiences at the job markets through such programs as internship. Teenagers would thus become more serious in pursuing their career aspirations, shunning risky sexual behaviors. Conclusion Lack of enough parental care and parental guidance is one of the major factors for the teenagers to lose focus. The young mothers, who have dropped out of high school unlike those who graduate, bring up children who lack the essential facilities to develop their respective talents, consequently under developing the society as such individuals do not re alize their full potential. If such individuals had been accorded the appropriate facilities, they would have probably become more productive and pivotal in advancement of the society and national building. African Americans population has been the hardest hit by teenage mothers dropping out. This affects some young African American teenagers, as they are unable to acquire work. Being an age-old problem of teenage mother dropping out of school, most African Americans in modern America are involved in crimes and drugs compared to the white population (Rumberger, 1991). Teenage motherhood is challenging and the young girls need a lot of support. Without education, improving their living standard becomes very difficult. Reference List Arai, L. (2009).Teenage pregnancy: the making and unmaking of a problem. Portland: The Policy Press Biddle, S,. Gorely, T,. Marshall, S,. Murdey, I,. and Cameron, N. (2008). Physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth: issues and controversies. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health 175-180 Harding, J. (2003) Counterfactual models of neighborhood effects. The American Journal of Sociology volume 109, No.3: 677-719. Gillham, B. (1997). The facts about teenage pregnancies. Herndon: Cassell Press. Gregson, J. (2009). The Culture of teenage mothers. Albany: State University of New York Press Musick, J. (1995) Young, poor, and pregnant: the psychology of teenage motherhood. Yale: Yale University Press. Rumberger, R. (1995). Dropping Out of Middle School: A Multilevel Analysis of Students and Schools.American Educational Research Journal volume: 32: 583-625 Rumberger, R. (1994). Navigating the psychosocial pressures of adolescence: the voices and experiences of high school youth. American Educational Research Journal. Volume. 31: 415-447 Rumberger, R. (1991). A third of our youth? A look at the problem of high school dropout among students with mild handicaps. Journal of Special Education. 102-113 Zastrow, C. and Kirst -Ashman, K. (2007). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Belmont: Cengage Learning This research paper on The impact of Education on the Social Economics Status of Teenage Mothers was written and submitted by user Nina I. to help you with your own studies. 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