Thursday, September 3, 2020
Question: What are the fundamental specialized aptitudes, information, and capacities a group director ought to have in a product improvement venture? How are relational abilities attached to extend achievement? Answer: Fundamental specialized aptitudes, information and capacities of a group supervisor in programming advancement venture and impact of relational abilities on venture achievement: As the utilization of IT method is expanding, the associations are giving significance on embraced ventures for programming execution. In spite of the fact that the associations investigate dangers related with programming usage, frequently these tasks flop because of absence of contribution with top administration in the venture. Anyway Prinzo (2011) expressed that regularly supervisory group set ridiculous desires for the task. As the product advancement ventures are perplexing in nature, defining unreasonable objectives diminishes chances for finishing the task effectively. The exploration directed by Poole, (2002) additionally demonstrates that the odds of undertaking disappointment increment if individuals from the task group don't have adequate data what they need to do. The exploration directed by Turk, France Rumpe (2014) likewise shows that the odds of venture disappointment additionally increment if individuals from the group are not furnished with appropriate prerequisites obviously expressing jobs and duties of staffs inside group. Investigation on the issues looked during the venture additionally mirrors that the undertaking groups likewise face issues related with opportune consummation of the errands. Highsmith (2013) additionally opined that the methodology utilized by group the executives utilized for dealing with individuals from venture group impacts accomplishment of the task. James (2009) recommended that the strategies utilized for programming changes are being changed quickly. As new advances are being presented for creating programming, designers working in programming improvement venture need to have top to bottom information on these innovations. Anyway the examination directed by Basili et al. (2013) additionally demonstrates that absence of delicate abilities among individuals from a venture group is likewise considered as one of the affecting components which sway on fruitful finishing of the undertaking. Investigation on the issues distinguished in three articles demonstrates that the vast majority of the product improvement ventures flop because of ill-advised utilization of task the executives strategies. Despite the fact that presentation of new advances is making the product improvement venture progressively mind boggling, it is additionally obvious that the individuals from venture group likewise need upgrade their delicate aptitudes so as to guarantee that the task will be finished effectively. Examination on the issues produced while executing errands related with programming improvement venture shows that the advances being utilized in venture the board are being enhanced consistently. James (2009) expressed that the new advancements, for example, PHP, Java and .Net are being utilized generally in programming improvement ventures. Conversation on the mechanical information required for creating programming shows that the designers require having top to bottom information on structures and libraries related with these advances. Anyway James (2009) likewise opined that utilization of dexterous system is expanding for dealing with the activities related with programming advancement. It mirrors that the experts who are engaged with programming improvement ventures need to have information on light-footed system. From the examination it is likewise apparent that administration and individuals from the undertaking group needs to have sufficient delicate abilities with the goal that profitability of the groups expanding. Examination on the articles likewise shows that the odds for finishing a task effectively can be expanded by utilizing XP strategies. Utilization of XP techniques empowers the board of programming improvement venture group to finish the whole assignment in a few emphasess. Anyway utilization of XP approach likewise empowers the undertaking group to utilize nearby clients. The task bunch utilizing XP strategies should be encouraged for making a necessity co-appointment gathering so individuals from the group gets ready to comprehend their jobs and obligations in group. The conversation on exercises being led in venture groups for programming created demonstrates that correspondence assumes a significant job for finishing the task effectively. Anyway style utilized by pioneers for dealing with the group additionally impacts on effective fruition of undertakings. Poole, (2002) proposed if individuals from a group don't get adequate chances to speak with pioneers, their presentation additionally debases. Absence of correspondence with the executives of undertaking group likewise shows that the staffs neglect to talk about the issues created while executing the errands. As an effect, the pioneers additionally don't get adequate open doors for recognizing and understanding the issues. Examination on the issues confronted while finishing a task likewise shows that nearness of delicate abilities is imperative to complete the venture effectively. Anyway utilization of delicate abilities likewise empowers the undertaking individuals to speak with clients mo reover. Speaking with clients expands the odds of finishing the task effectively. References: Basili, V. R., Heidrich, J., Lindvall, M., Mnch, J., Regardie, M., Rombach, D., ... Trendowicz, A. (2013). Connecting programming advancement and business methodology through measurement.arXiv preprint arXiv:1311.6224 Highsmith, J. (2013).Adaptive programming advancement: a communitarian way to deal with overseeing complex frameworks. Addison-Wesley. Poole, C.(2002) Three Week Project Turnaround, Retrieved from https://c2.com/cgi-receptacle/wiki?ThreeWeekProjectTurnaround [11 June 2015] Prinzo, R. (2011). Venture Management: 6 accepted procedures for guaranteeing programming execution achievement. CIO Magazine. June 6. Recovered from https://www.cio.com/article/683570/Project_Management_6_Best_Practices_for_Ensuring_Software_Implementation_Success[11 June 2015] James, J. (2009). 10 aptitudes engineers will require in the following five years. TechRepublic. Recovered from https://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-aptitudes engineers will-require in-the-following five-years/[11 June 2015] Turk, D., France, R., Rumpe, B. (2014). Suppositions fundamental lithe programming advancement processes.arXiv preprint arXiv:1409.6610.
Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Examination paper2 - Essay Example It is regularly contended that stoutness is emphatically connected with cheap food. Independent of youthful or grown-up, cheap food is getting greater notoriety among individuals everywhere throughout the world. Ã¢â¬Å"A new examination shows that toxicperfluoroalkyls, which are utilized in surface security medicines and coatings to shield oil from spilling through inexpensive food coverings, are being ingested by individuals through their food and appearing as contaminants in bloodÃ¢â¬ (Mercola). Most importantly, inexpensive food contains more fat substance than some other nourishments. Along these lines, the rationale of utilizing inexpensive food all the time is profoundly begging to be proven wrong. Food is vital for the sustainment of human life. Simultaneously, over food and constrained food or absence of food are similarly liable for messing wellbeing up. In addition, present day cultivating strategies are not very great for keeping the soundness of individuals. So as to expand the yield, ranchers everywhere throughout the world are utilizing tremendous measures of manures, synthetic substances, and pesticides in their horticultural terrains. Harvests or food grains created because of such undesirable cultivating techniques are causing immense medical issues from various perspectives. Most importantly, expanded utilization of manures synthetic compounds and pesticides is making colossal contaminations air, land and water. As it were, inappropriate cultivating strategies can make numerous issues every living thing in this world, including individuals. Hereditarily adjusted food or GM food is another idea in the cultivating field. Hereditarily adjusted nourishments are equipped for giving more yields. In any case, the wellbeing of utilizing such nourishments is as yet muddled or debateable. Natural food is one of the most present day ideas created in the cultivating field so as to wipe out all the worries clarified previously. Ã¢â¬Å"The nourishments that are developed without utilizing any synthetic manures and pesticides, handled without including any of the counterfeit fixings and bundled utilizing characteristic methods can be alluded as natural foodsÃ¢â¬
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The way that Brazil is one of the most significant rising countries can not be denied. There is no uncertainty that this nation stands out with regards to financial and political incomparability in the southern piece of the American mainland. This has been made conceivable by the longing of this nation to turn into a territorial and worldwide capacity to deal with. We will compose a custom exposition test on Brazilian international strategy or then again any comparative point just for you Request Now To this end, the majority of the presidents that have controlled this country since the finish of the military principle in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s have thought of international strategies that can be seen as expecting a global look while simultaneously attempting to keep up the sway of this country. Generally striking of these international strategies is the one that is embraced by the present Brazilian president. When Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva assumed control of this nation in 2003, he thought of an international strategy that appeared to be interestingly somehow or another to his predecessorÃ¢â¬â¢s. Fernando Henrique CardosoÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy, when contrasted with that of Lula, shows some striking contrasts. Lula has been vocal in contradicting the authority that is related with American international strategies. He attempts to make a monetary and political framework that is autonomous on the American impact while at the equivalent been perceived by America as an equivalent, as opposed to a manikin of the American government. This position appeared to be censured when he built up a concise relationship, a nearby one, with George W. Shrub when he came to control in 2002. This might be the motivation behind why his international strategies have been viewed as been conflicting. Be that as it may, he keeps up a critical perspective on the globalization wonder. He views it as the apparatus that is utilized by the rich countries to smother and endeavor both poor people and the developing countries. This paper is going to investigate LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy. The solid purposes of his approach will be audited, just as the shortcomings and difficulties. LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s Foreign Policy: Assertive? As indicated by Hurrell (51), Lula can be depicted as having stood firm on worldwide framework that can be portrayed as been somewhat intriguing. He sees this global framework with question, yet proceeds to state that it is feasible for brazil to keep up a Ã¢â¬Å"activist and emphatic outside policyÃ¢â¬ (Hurrell 51). CardosoÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy was viewed as not been emphatic enough. He was once cited saying that Ã¢â¬Å"creating grinding with Washington is to loseÃ¢â¬ (Hurrell 53). This organization was not seen as safeguarding the interests of this Latin American country adequately. Lula looked to adjust an alternate style, helped by his supporters in the Workers Party. Lula underlined the way that the precariousness of the universal framework coupled by the centralization of forces in hardly any hands was not a formula for the turn of events and sway of Brazil. He was of the view that United States, along with a bunch of partners, held to an extreme degree an excessive amount of intensity in the worldwide field, to such an extent that if anything somehow managed to transpire, it will influence a large portion of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s countries contrarily (Hurrell 51). He has consistently highlighted the current monetary emergency for instance of how botches submitted by the well off country of the world prompted agonies of the poor countries. His hatred for the created countries was clear when he talked down on Gordon Brown in a public interview in March 2009. He made the statement that stood out as truly newsworthy for a considerable length of time. Ã¢â¬Å"This emergency was brought about by more white individuals with blue eyes (sic)Ã¢â¬ ¦. they claimed to thoroughly understand economicsÃ¢â¬ (SkyNews 2009). He said this before Gordon earthy colored, one his supposed Ã¢â¬Å"white individuals with blue eyesÃ¢â¬ . Aside from demonstrating the amount he disdained western powers, this announcement was an away from of the way that Lula doesn't fear these ravenous westerners. He will hold on what he accepts to be reality, regardless of whether it didn't go down well with the whites. The main other head of express that can be relied upon to offer such an expression is possibly the Muslim chiefs. In any case, a president from an allegedly well disposed country to the Americans! Lula fights that the advertised worldwide economy is more damaging than it is helpful to the developing countries (Hurrell 52). By this type of exchange, the western countries dig in themselves on the planet political and financial field, while emergencies are made for poor people. A pointer to this is the current monetary emergency. There is additionally a ton of disparity both inside and remotely. This is on the grounds that worldwide exchange benefits hardly any people inside the neighborhood economies and not many countries in the global field. LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s organization has consistently tried to keep up the self-sufficiency of this country in the global field (Hurrell 52). And yet, it needs to fashion attaches with different countries around the globe. Lula has gathered in framing attaches with other rising countries, disregarding the western and created nations (Barriaux 1). This will relieve the outer vulnerabilities related with disassociation with the world superpowers. That is the reason Lula has evaded the North AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s Free Trade Area. Rather, he has depended on fortifying provincial collaboration with neighbors like Uruguay, Paraguay and others over the mainland like South Africa, china and India (Fitzpatrick 1). Lula has begun to give Washington butterflies when it became clear that he was purpose in creating Brazilian atomic innovation (Hurrell 52). His organization is occupied with mechanical privileged insights. And yet, he is sufficiently shrewd to keep up benevolent relations with the atomic examination groups that have been conveyed to Brazil. LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s Foreign Policy: Successful? His strategies have been hailed by numerous individuals similar to an example of overcoming adversity. This is thinking about the way that nations which have attempted to challenge the western superpowers have fallen by the way side. Be that as it may, Brazil bursts ahead, yet jerkily, much in the wake of challenging America Washington and London. Yet at the same time, a few pundits have been opining that LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy is conflicting. Be that as it may, possibly, the consistency of LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s international strategy lies in its irregularity. Maybe the quality of his international strategy lies in these supposed irregularities. Brazil has consistently kept up an extreme position when it came to worldwide exchange. She was disobedient that no dumping of low quality products from outside economies will be done on her economy. This was negated when LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s organization recognized China as a Ã¢â¬Å"market economyÃ¢â¬ (Fitzpatrick 1). This was in 2004. This means Brazil can not stop the progression of low quality products from China. China is known for her propensity to flood the global economy with her modest, low quality products. This is capital punishment to the nearby enterprises. Brazil has opposed this until this point in time. China would not back Lula in his offer to get a changeless opening at the United NationsÃ¢â¬â¢ Security Council (Fitzpatrick 1). This was viewed as irregularity in LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s position of a self-sufficient country. Be that as it may, in 2009, Lula was in Beijing. This was maybe restitution time for China. While he was there, he marked an arrangement with Hu Jintao that would see Brazil send out an aggregate of 200,000 barrels of unrefined petroleum to Beijing (Barriaux 1). Additionally, a credit was offered to him from the Chinese government that was to spike improvement in Brazil. This was more than 10-billion dollar (Barriaux 1). He took his hatred of the American system there when he said that plans were in progress to forsake the American dollar as the vehicle of trade when the two nations were directing exchange. This is the consistency of LulaÃ¢â¬â¢s conflicting international strategy that the essayist is discussing. Lula, by marking the agreement with the Chinese government, communicated his longing of establishing attaches with different countries separated from the West. Brazil is a gross exporter of farming items, and this is the foundation of her economy (Fitzpatrick 1). When Lula and his lieutenants take the skeptical and negative respect of the worldwide market, one is left pondering where Lula plans to sell the whole Soya from this nation. Be that as it may, Lula has been calculative as could be. He drove a blacklist of the Doha round table talks in 2003, driving a gathering of creating countries out of the setting until the created countries tended to their interests. Celso Amorim, the outside priest, drove an effective campaign against sponsorships that the European Union and America offered to their ranchers (Fitzpatrick 1). This was equipped towards defending the farming fares of the nation. Lula has endeavored to restore Mercosur, the provincial exchange alliance of the Latin American countries (Hurrell 55). This is allocate that he is keen on attesting local control and impact in this district. Been an individual from this association, Lula will have the option to deal with the Americans and Britons with regards to exchange matters. This has given Lula influence with the end goal that he can avoid the western countries and simultaneously make himself pertinent to them. He has selected this association while simultaneously opposing the Free Trade Area embraced by United States. Decision Lula has embraced an international strategy position that is striking and yet dangerous. He has looked to state the nearness of the Brazilian country in the worldwide field while simultaneously declining to ride on the tail layers of the created countries, similar to America. He has a skeptical perspective on the worldwide economy. This is unsafe considering the way that Brazil is a trading economy, and in this way needs to depend on the worldwide market for progress. Lula has attempted to fashion alliances with other developing countries like India and China. Along these lines, Lula has disposed of the outside helplessness that the western nations would have exploited by estranging Brazil with the res
Globalization of China versus US - Research Paper Example US Steel Corporation, built up in the year 1901, is one of the greatest coordinated locally claimed steel organizations of US. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s client base is enhanced in worldwide markets including Central Europe and Canada. It was pronounced as the thirteenth biggest steel creating organization on the planet in the year 2010. The globalization of businesses in US is relied upon to build the benefit of the organization in future because of developing requests in the rising economies, for example, China. Baosteel, built up in the year 1978, was proclaimed as the second biggest steel delivering organization on the planet in 2011 and has exhibited amazing execution as of late independent of stoppage popular in the worldwide market. From the fiscal summary examination of the US Steel Corp. it very well may be said that US SteelÃ¢â¬â¢s creation limit surpasses its absolute deals prompting unsold stock. Steel segment is now a patterned division as in the interest for the steel items differ in each quarter. Globalization in China in expected to help the organization in differentiating its items into different economies. What's more, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s large scale manufacturing will assist it with reaching economies of scale in future that will additionally assist with trading steel at less expensive rates making US local steel industry progressively serious. The examination means to break down the fiscal reports of the two organizations and give a relative investigation by featuring key regions of concern, effect of globalization in US and China and prescribe steps that ought to be taken to guarantee productivity in serious condition. Presentation The steel business is one of the most significant ventures of the economy and is likewise considered as a significant pointer of economy. It plays a significant in the improvement of generally speaking economy and foundation. The use of steel is utilized in numerous enterprises, for example, development, cars, appar atus, transportation, and numerous others. The worldwide steel yield was more than 1547 million tons for the year finishing 2012. The most significant attributes of the steel business are that it is recurrent and exceptionally divided. The steel business has encountered predominant development during the most recent two decades however after the worldwide budgetary emergency, the industry endured languor sought after. So as to oversee working danger, numerous organizations have enhanced their tasks in developing economies where the interest of steel was not influenced by worldwide downturn. Organization Analysis Baosteel Group Corporation Baosteel Group Corporation (otherwise called Baosteel) is one of the iron and steel biggest organization of China. It was built up in the year 1978 and its head quarter is in Shanghai, China. It is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second biggest steel maker following ArcelorMittal as far as total yield. In the year 2012, the organization was granted 197th positi on in Fortunes Global 500 for ninth back to back year. It was likewise appraised by Fitch, S&P, and MoodyÃ¢â¬â¢s as A3, An, and A-separately around the same time. Baosteel was likewise distinguished one of the most respected organization on the planet. The organization basically works in the iron and steel industry and delivers top notch steel that increases the value of different ventures. The fundamental results of the organization are tempered steel, unique steel and carbon steel. The organization detailed around 44.2 million tons that helped it to procure over RMB 18.10 billion. Consequently, it was positioned as the
Friday, August 21, 2020
What is A Room With A View about, as you would like to think? What strategies does E.M. Forster use to pass on this message to the peruser? A Room With A View is about the social change happening in England in the mid twentieth century, post Queen Victoria's passing. Darwin had simply distributed his book on the hypothesis of development which was the impetus for the presentation of increasingly liberal and common thoughts into a moderate and strict England. So as to clarify this procedure of progress, Forster compares it to the Renaissance, which is the reason it is critical that A Room With A View starts in Italy. The issue with a quickly changing society is that individuals from that society don't fundamentally realize how to carry on in light of the fact that the limits are changing and this is the thing that Forster is attempting to depict in A Room With A View. Each character in the novel can be sorted into one of two gatherings, the Victorian/Medieval characters and the twentieth Century/Renaissance characters. Certain characters represent unique periods. Nonetheless, Forster is skilful enough to make these characters sensible which is the reason they are equipped for logical inconsistency; for truly a hardly any characters, the peruser accepts that they have a place with one of these bunches however then their conduct is out of nowhere in opposition to that gathering in this way confounding the peruser with respect to what period they represent. For instance Miss Bartlett is promptly seen by the peruser as a 'Victorian' on the grounds that in the principal part she rejects Mr Emerson's liberality since she feels it is inappropriate to acknowledge. In any case toward the finish of the novel, the peruser is made mindful that Miss Bartlett deliberately doesn't intrude on a discussion among Lucy and Mr Emerson, consummately mindful that he could convince Lucy to admi... ...es, where individuals had faith in affection, however disdain those opposed show to wed for affection. His epic is fruitful at doing this since it extols enthusiasm and lack of caution; he taunts those representing show, for example, Cecil, Mr Energetic and Miss Bartlett and supports those that speak to adore and advancement. Cecil doesn't simply speak to show he too speaks to 'culture'. Lucy and George wed at long last to everybody's shock since it is Forster's want to empower sentiment. In spite of the fact that Forster's epic is managing explicit occasions happening in English history it never the less stays a novel which is still appreciated today since it manages the widespread subject that adoration overcomes all. The characters are manifestations that live today similarly as they did as when the novel was first distributed, in light of the fact that they are so sensible and recognizable to the peruser.
Monday, August 3, 2020
what will you be doing in 2014 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog The deadline to apply for the Spring 2014 term is quickly approaching Its a week away! If this is the right time to pursue a graduate program, then go for it. Why wait until the fall if you can begin in the spring? (re-read the J-Termer Experience post) For admissions requirements, please click here. If you need additional time to submit last minute documents such as GRE scores or youre waiting for the last recommender to submit her reference letter; go ahead and submit your MIA/MPA application just be sure to contact the Admissions Office to let us know whats on its way. If youre still not sure whether SIPA is the right place for you, come see us at the APSIA Admissions Forum to be held in New York (15 Barclay Street) on Tuesday, October 15th from 6pm to 8pm. You will have the opportunity to meet with school representatives not only from SIPA but also from other reputable international affairs institutions. Its free to attend; you may register online through the APSIA website. Hope to meet you along the way to a bright future at SIPA!
Monday, June 22, 2020
Mr. Baggins began as a comic tale among conventional and inconsistent fairy-tale dwarves, and got drawn into the edge of it so that even Sauron the terrible peeped over the edge. -J.R.R Tolkien, letter to his publisher (quoted in Carpenter 1977, 182).The Hobbit started as little more than a bedtime story for Tolkiens children. Like most of his fellow academics, Tolkien viewed fantasy as limited to childhood. The result was a book written in a chatty, informal style that contrasts sharply with that of its serious successors. The narrator makes frequent patronising and intrusive asides, such as And what would you do, if an uninvited dwarf came and hung his things up in your hall without a word of explanation? (H, 18). The language approximates baby-talk at times (nasty, dirty wet hole oozy smell), and modifiers (terribly, lots and lots) abound.Many critics, including Tolkien himself, have viewed this as the chief weakness of the book. Although the tone does evoke the oral traditio n through which myths were originally created, it detracts from the power of the book. It renders villains are more comic than truly threatening, its heroes more endearing than awe-inspiring. One commentator feels that The Hobbit lacks a certain intellectual weight and deserves little serious, purely literary criticism (Helms 1974: 53).The important words here are purely literary. The novel cannot be studied in isolation, but must be seen against the broader backdrop of Tolkiens literary philosophy and the entire mythic tradition. For the writing of The Hobbit both influenced and was influenced by the profound intellectual change its author was undergoing, namely the development of the philosophy of mythopoeia, or myth-making.In his lecture On Fairy Stories, delivered only a few months after The Hobbit was published, Tolkien expressed the view that myth represents truth about humanity and its environment far better than the crude factuality of science is able to. It allows peop le to see in a new light what has become commonplace and drab. Although Elves, for instance, do not exist in a scientific sense, they embody the creative skill and immortality of the human spirit, and therefore do exist.As Tolkien put it, the storyteller makes a Secondary World in which your mind can enter. Inside it, what he relates is true: it accords with the laws of that world. You therefore believe it, while you are, as it were, inside. He called this process sub-creation: by creating a parallel world, the myth-maker emulates God, the supreme creator. The Bible is the ultimate, divine fairy story because it reconciles historic with mythic truth, and all man-made myth will reflect this. Tolkien famously disliked allegory, and saw myth as an entirely different art form.In addition, Tolkien believed, fairy stories offer an escape from the gloom of modern life and, through eucatastrophe, or the happy ending, provide a joy similar to religious ecstasy. However, he could find no mythology indigenous to his native country, and so, in his own words, set out to create a body of more or less connected legend, ranging from the large and cosmogenic to the level of the romantic fairy story which I could dedicate simply to England (quoted in Rogers Rogers 1980: 30).In true mythopoetic tradition, The Hobbit borrows extensively from the ancient and medieval, only a few of which can be detailed in this essay. The Old English poem Beowulf inspired, among others, its chief villain, Smaug. In his other well-known lecture, entitled Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics, Tolkien rebuffed scholars critical of the central theme monsters occupy in the poem, and argues that they are essential [and] give it its lofty tone and high seriousness. They embody radical evil, he argues, and make true heroism possible. Thus when Bilbo encounters the dragons hoard, he takes a cup, just as the nameless servant in Beowulf does. Both works end in a dragon-slaying, but even more in terestingly, they begin in the defeat of quite similar creatures: Grendel in Beowulf, Gollum in Hobbit.Smaug is a creation of several other sources, some that the author himself would dispute. His name is derived from the Germanic verb smugan meaning to squeeze through a hole. He is a fusion of serpent and bird, symbolising the union of earth and sky, or, in psychoanalytical terms, id and superego. Therefore, his death brings about the equilibrium of both slayer and community. The dragon also reminds of the Biblical serpent, and with great skill tempts Bilbo into doubting his party (Nitsche 1979: 44). There are even echoes of parable when Smaugs vanity and greed causes him to reveal his weak spot and thereby brings about his downfall.Tolkien was also heavily influenced by Norse mythology. The Hobbits elves, trolls and especially dwarves, which forge beautiful and valuable treasures deep inside mountains, are Nordic creations. The name of the head dwarf, Thorin Oakenshield, is found in the Prose Edda, and is derived from the Icelandic words Thorin, meaning bold one and Eikinskjaldi, meaning with oak-shield. Another uniquely Nordic feature is the importance of luck in the composition of a hero, although in Tolkien the Catholic luck definitely contains elements of divine providence.The riddle-contest, which has been called the pivot of the story and which the narrator assures us is sacred and of immense antiquity (H, 84), mirrors The Saga of Kind Hedrik the Wise, where Odin disguises himself and wins a riddle contest by asking a question that is not a riddle. As in fairy tales the world over, rhymes and music play an important role throughout The Hobbit in mirroring the order or disorder in nature. Rituals, in general, and especially feasting, signify fellowship and equilibrium. This explains why a period of intense danger and suffering in the companys journey is always followed by a feast provided by a hospitable representative of Middle Earth.The cha racter of Beorn has a rich mythic heritage. Bears are revered by the Celts and respected by the Norse for their primitive power. Beorn derives his name from the Nordic words for warrior, beorn and bear, bjorn. He is perhaps modelled on the legendary beserkers, warriors who went into such a frenzy during battle that they performed extraordinary feats. As both man and bear, he represents the unity of nature and society, much long-for by humanity since the fall. He embodies both the cruelty and honesty of nature. For this reason, shamans often assumed animalistic qualities during rituals (ONeill 1979: 118). The fact that both Bear (earth) and Eagles (sky) offer their assistance on more than one occasion again symbolises the unity between all aspects of nature and of the human psyche once evil is defeated.However, one learns little by raking through a compost heap to see what dead plants originally went into it. Far better to observe its effect on the new and growing plants whic h it is enriching (Carpenter 1977: 182). Despite the above-mentioned influences, and many others, Tolkien was not interested in merely rehashing other peoples stories, but in mythopoeia. Although Tolkien did not begin The Hobbit with this intention, he soon found himself, quite unexpectedly discovering a world with its own scientific laws, races and even proverbs, such as escaping goblins to be caught by wolves (H, 101).If there is a specific point where The Hobbit first begins to transcend its modest beginnings, it is surely with Bilbos discovery of the ring. The importance of this part of the book makes for an odd, unconventional structure, one surely unplanned by the author himself. The sentence It was a turning point in his career, but he did not know it marks the beginning of a change in tone it remains simple and informal, but begins to deepen and mature.The enchanted talisman is a potent mythical symbol, and with the words it quietly slipped on to his groping forefinger , Tolkien already implies that the ring has a will of its own. It is Bilbos (and the readers) first experience of real magical power, as opposed to Gandalfs earlier fireworks. The ring is the link between The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, and its discovery is as much a turning point in Tolkiens career as in his protagonists.Another link is the troglodyte Gollum, the first embodiment of real, adult evil. He is the age-old figure of the unhuman, made even more disconcerting because he was once a hobbit and thus, in Jungian terms, represents Bilbos shadow side. It is fitting the Bilbo should discover this aspect of himself at the edge of a deep, murky lake, after a physical descent into the mountain. This is representative of the descent into his psyche. The heros journey into the underworld, of which Orpheus is the most well-known, has always been accompanied by his isolation, entrapment and loss of control over enchantment. His quest is to emerge with certain powerful symb ols that will mark his initiation into manhood. To keep the ring, Bilbo has to confront his long-suppressed Took side, a side he does not fully embrace until he has descended once more, into Smaugs mountain.The dragons death is another turning point in The Hobbit for both thematic and character development. The hitherto clear-cut lines between good and evil begin to blur, and the theme of the nature of heroism is developed. Thorin, until now the character closest to the conventional fairy tale hero, becomes stubborn and greedy. Although he remains firmly on the side of good, his position is usurped by Bard, who epitomises the courage and selflessness required by the hero of a fairy tale.Of course, neither of these traditional heroes are The Hobbits most important hero. That title belongs to Bilbo, the unhero with his many flaws. Because he is all too human, his growth gives hope and inspiration to ordinary people. Tolkien certainly identified with him, writing I am in fact a hobbit (in all but size) and equating hobbits, in their lack of imagination but potential for courage, with the English in general (quoted in Rogers Rogers 1980: 126).Bilbos sacrifice of the Arkenstone, his most noble act, develops the very Christian theme that renunciation can be a more powerful act than acquisition. The approval of Gandalf, the guide and teacher that is in this world but not quite of it, reinforces the religious undertones. It is he who reminds Bilbo at the end of his journey that he was merely a small player in a divine plan:Surely you dont disbelieve the prophecies just because you had a hand in bringing them about yourself? You dont really suppose, do you, that all your adventures and escapes were managed by mere luck, just for your sole benefit? [Y]ou are only quite a little fellow in a wide world after all! (H, 285).Because Tolkien wanted to retain a remoteness and fantastical quality, there is not explicit mention of a Christian God in The Hobbit. Howeve r, God is present by creating a world both like and unlike his own, the author believed he was paying tribute to God. By awakening humanitys imagination, he would thereby waken its spirituality and religious inclination.The Lord of the Rings would have been impossible of not for its predecessor. Tolkien learned so much in writing The Hobbit that he had to do the whole thing again, differently (Helms 1974: 53). The book played a vital role in teaching its author the immense possibilities of fantasy. It itself does not exhaust these possibilities, but merely begins to explore them. It starts unambitiously, but in drawing from the rich store of world folklore and the authors imagination, soon develops into a myth that, like all good fantasy, speaks as clearly to the mythopoetic imagination today as it did in Tolkiens time.Bibliography:Carpenter, H. 1977. J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography. London: George Allen Unwin.Helms, R. 1974. Myth, Magic and Meaning in Tolkiens World. Lond on: Granada Publishing.Nitshe, J.C. 1979. Tolkiens Art: A Mythology for England. New York: St. Martins.ONeill, T.R. 1979. The Individuated Hobbit. Boston: Hougton Mifflin.Rogers, D. Rogers, I.A. 1980. J.R.R. Tolkien. Boston: Twayne.Tolkien, J.R.R. 1937. The Hobbit. London: George Allen Unwin.